An important eﬀect of a resistor is that it converts electrical energy into other forms of energy,
such as heat and light.
Factors that affect resistance of a conductor:
1. the length of the conductor
~The longer the conductor , the higher its resistance
2. the cross-sectional area of the conductor
~The bigger the cross-sectional area, the lower the its resistance
3. type of material of the conductor
~ Different conductors with the same physical conditions have different resistance
4. the temperature of the conductor
~ The higher temperature of conductor , the higher the resistance.
simulation :R= resistance [Ω]
ρ = resistivity of the substance[Ωm]
L = length [m]
A = cross-sectional area of conductor [m 2]
Worked example :